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5 Ways To Keep Your Donor Database Engaged

Chris Holroyd



Database Engaged

When it comes to running a successful nonprofit, it’s essential to keep your donor base engaged. Otherwise, you could end up losing essential support over time and compromising your ability continue providing services. There is so much nonprofit data to consider on a regular basis that it’s easy to temporarily lose sight of one of your top priorities—which is earning and keeping the loyalty of your donors. Here are five ways to keep your donor database engaged.

How Nonprofit Data Can Help You in Understanding Your Donor Demographics

Though it may seem overwhelming at times, analyzing nonprofit data is essential for helping you understand our donor demographics. To do this effectively, you need some type of tool that can help you make sense of the numbers. Raiser’s Edge donor management software can make data importation and organization a cinch.

As you analyze the information in your database, you can gain insight into your donor demographics. Once you understand who your donors are, you can create a more targeted outreach approach that will feel more personal to your donors and will be more likely to earn their engagement and interest. When you consistently focus on targeting your content to your various donors, you’ll experience greater success in your efforts.

Leverage Your Nonprofit Data To Help You in Donor Outreach

Developing an effective donor outreach takes skill, but it also takes a lot of data. Blackbaud Salesforce Integration software provides you with an effective way to drive your fundraising efforts while utilizing leading data intelligence. This tool can help you segment and score your most likely future donors without spending exorbitant amounts of time doing so. There is no easier way to manage your nonprofit data so you can use it to maximize donor outreach.

Calculate Your Donor Retention Rate

In addition to the tools above, you can also keep your donor database engaged by calculating your donor retention rate. Then, you can focus your efforts on ways to improve donor retention rate.

Be Creative

Donors love to be thanked for their support, but if you always thank them in the same way, it can get boring. To pique their interest and keep them engaged, treat your donors to new and exciting shows of gratitude. For example, you may consider taking time to make some in-person visits with gift baskets in-hand to show your gratitude to top donors. Talk with your team and brainstorm new ways to help your donors feel appreciated and valued.

Get Feedback

If you’re not sure how to keep your donors engaged, why not ask them? You could create a poll or send out an email inviting your donors to tell you why they give to your organization. The idea is to learn what motivates your donors to give. Once you understand their motivation, you can come up with more effective ways to reach out to them. You can also post a survey on social media welcoming donors to explain what they like about your nonprofit and what you could do to improve your relationship with them.

Author Bio:

Rohan Biswas is a Writer and a Blogger. He loves to write any category content, but his Favourite is Lifestyle. He is the founder and CEO at Solvingbee, Where you can find any type of how to post.

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Is it time for you to consider IT Asset Disposition (ITAD)

Chris Holroyd



IT Asset Disposition (ITAD)

Recently, many companies have undertaken large deployments and purchases of equipment in order to enable employees and students to efficiently work from home.  As lockdown rules are starting to be relaxed all over the world, it’s really important to ask “what is going to happen to all the extra equipment deployed during these hard times?”  Hopefully, this article will help you understand how IT Asset Disposition (ITAD) can help in some key areas.

Equipment Maintenance

The increased need to organize upgrades and repairs of remote workers’ IT equipment is a challenge we will all face.  As more equipment is spread across several locations, the logistics become very time consuming and may be hard to manage.  So, looking for a third-party vendor could make a lot more sense than doing it yourself.  

Since ITAD services are classified as Essential, many of them are still providing services such as sending out labels and boxes, preparing and packaging equipment for return, arranging for the pick-up and delivery of equipment or decommissioning a data center.  For companies looking to continue their larger IT refresh projects, ITAD firms are still able to collect and process larger quantities of equipment, tailoring services in line with social distancing, hygiene, and safety requirements.  This can also be incorporated into your Joiners, Movers, Leavers’ policy — updating ownership status of IT assets at the key points of a staff member’s employee lifecycle.   Even without the added restrictions of COVID-19, a permanent increase in working remotely will require additional processes and capacity around the lifecycle management of hardware devices.

IT Asset Disposition

Despite their ability to continue providing services, several ITAD companies have already folded.  Those remaining still have the same challenges as the rest of the world and are working with fewer employees than usual and incorporating social distancing measures at their facilities.  In addition, facilities need to be cleaned much more often which can lead to lower efficiencies and longer lead times.  It’s important to bear this in mind when considering what SLAs can be offered internally to the business.

Working from Home

The sudden spike in working from home means organizations have substantially more hardware than they did three months ago, particularly laptops, monitors, and mobile phones.  Whether due to the potential for further “lockdowns” or simply that people and businesses have realized the various benefits of remote working, it’s likely that much of this “extra” equipment will become part of business as usual going forward.

Office Working

Not all companies will choose or be able to adopt widespread remote workers, and even those who do, will have certain employees that will either want or need to return to the office.  This means it’s likely that firms will find themselves with excess equipment.  If that’s you, what are your options?

Reducing Potential Purchases

Some companies will wish to reuse their own equipment within their employee base in order to reduce the need for new hardware purchases.  Refurbishing and reusing equipment is already becoming popular as some buyers struggle to source new equipment due to increased demand and disrupted supply chains.

Reselling Hardware

Some companies wish to resell their excess equipment to help generate some return on their IT investments.  Many ITAD providers have access to international channels through which they are able to sell equipment in order to generate the best possible financial returns. As well as cutting costs or making you money, using the right ITAD provider can help you to cut waste.  Most SME’s and large corporations already have waste reduction goals.  Many of them work to prevent “waste electrical and electronic equipment” (WEEE) where possible and to reduce the disposal of it in line with the WEEE Directive.  ITAD is an important piece of this puzzle and it shouldn’t be overlooked.  It’s imperative to deal with used assets appropriately and securely.

While most ITAD companies do not provide money back for recycled goods so it’s important to keep a keen eye on scrap markets, as they will determine whether service costs rise and whether firms will see a return from their used assets.

Securing Data

Thorough cleansing of data from used IT assets is highly important to both a company’s and client’s security, and it will ensure that they don’t fall foul of the various international data protection regulations such as the GDPR and CCPA.  This is an area in which companies cannot afford to slip.  While the UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has pledged to be more flexible due to the current climate, data breaches can lead to significant financial penalties; not to mention a loss in client trust and damage to the company’s brand.

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Best Solution to Fix SQL Database Access Denied Error

Chris Holroyd



SQL Database Access Denied Error

In today’s decade, SQL Server is one of the best database management system, which is developed by Microsoft while focusing on large enterprise environment work. It is used by all small and large businesses/organizations and any error in MS SQL Server can be harmful to users. SQL database access denied error will appear on the screen when a user tries to attach a database, which has been placed in different locations. 

 If you are one of the users who faced the same issue, then there is nothing to feel threatened by it. In the below section of this post, we will provide the step by step process to Fix SQL Server Error 5123 Access Denied manually or using the best SQL Database Recovery tool. Before proceeding further, let us explore the reasons why this error occurs in SQL Server. 

Top Reasons of SQL Database Access Denied Error 

  • While attaching the databases which is placed on the different locations and do not have sufficient privileges to the directory of the folder then the SQL error code is encountered.
  • Access Denied error encountered when there are multiple logins involved in attaching and detaching the databases.
  • A user faces this error message when the process currently running on the server but it has no proper permission to run the program folder.

Manual Steps to Fix SQL Database Access Denied Error 

Check File Permission

Follow the given steps to resolve Microsoft SQL Server error 5123: 

  • Firstly, Right-click on the SQL database MDF file which you want to attach.
  • Then, go to the Properties to check the Permission of that desired MDF file. 
  • Now, click the Add button to grant the login permission and also provide full control during the login process.

 To attach the LDF file, follow the same procedure as mentioned above. Also, users can directly use the Run as Administrator instead of granting permission to every database file. 

Use SQL Server Management Studio 

  • Launch SSMS and connect to the server using the appropriate credential.
  • Afterward, go to the Object Explorer section and click on the Databases to see the list of existing Databases.
  •  Right-Click on the Database and then opt for the Attach option from the menu.
  • A new window will appear on the screen afterward click on the Add button to add the file which you want to attach.
  • View the LDF and MDF database files and Click on the OK button to finish the process.

Professional Way to Resolve SQL Database Access Denied Error

If you are still facing this error after using the mentioned manual solutions, then you can try a reliable third-party tool like SQL Database Recovery. This software has the potential to recover corrupt or damaged .mdf and .ndf data files of SQL server. This utility has a self-explanatory and easy-to-use graphical user interface that a novice or non-tech user can easily operate it easily without any prior technical knowledge. Moreover, the utility supports database files created in SQL Server 2019, 2017, 2016, 2014, and below versions.

Some Awesome Benefits of using this solution

  • Recovers both primary and secondary Database Files of any version of SQL Server.
  • Repairs Corrupted damaged inaccessible or broken SQL database Files.
  • Repairs all issues in tables, records, rules, triggers, stored procedures, functions, indexes of MDF and NDF files.
  • Restore all data items from the database files on the SQL server without losing a bit of data.
  • Allows the user to export the recovered data into a live SQL Server Database or as SQL Scripts.
  • The tool offers an easy and self-explanatory Graphical User Interface to the users.
  • Recover deleted tables, functions, table records, stored procedures, views, rules, etc, without any hassle or data loss.
  • The tool shows all the deleted data items of MDF and NDF files in red color.
  • Allow users to export complete or selective data items from MDF (Primary) or NDF (Secondary) files to the SQL Server database.
  • Export recovered data to an existing database or as a new database in any version of MS SQL Server.

 Wrapping up

Well, in this blog we have explained some simple and effective solutions to Fix SQL Database Access Denied Error. Both manual and automated methods are mentioned in a detailed manner, users can try any of the methods as per the requirement. But the task becomes much simpler with the use of recommended software because of its concise working steps. 

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Best Applications of Data Science: A Game-Changer

Ram Tavva



best applications of data science

Data science deals with the collection, interpretation, and prediction of data using existing data sets. It is an area that got very popular after 2015. Data science collects or uses the existing information to either understand things that have already happened or predict things that are about to happen. In a business scenario, it is used for forecasts and predictions, while in the case of medicine and statistics, it is used to understand the existing data. Data science uses statistical methods combined with machine learning algorithms to improve the understanding of the data available. Here is a list of the ten best applications of data science.

Best Applications of Data Science

1. Business predictions: 

Future predictions from data science are very accurate. The risk factor faced by many businesses worldwide in their future decisions gave data scientists a defined role. Data science is used in business predictions to predict market demand and customer reaction. Data science is used in predicting competitors’ future actions. Some advanced businesses use it to analyze a successful idea from the past to understand the success and develop their business accordingly. All these predictions are used to make better decisions to make more profits.

2. Medical data:

Advanced medical scans use data science to understand the spread and predict the effects of the disease. Most tumors and cancers are identified using the scans generating data, which is fed into one of the machine learning algorithms to predict the rate and area of spread. Genetic engineering involves a lot of data that is understood using the results of the algorithm. Radiation and tumor recurrence are the two best applications in the medical field. The advanced genetic risk prediction uses data science to predict the risk of genetically transmitted diseases.

3. Internet browsing:

The results of your searches appear based on a data science algorithm. All the search engines, including Google, use a data science algorithm to give the best search results. Google’s algorithm uses an algorithm that uses data, such as your location and the keywords in your searches to show you the relevant results. Google’s search results vary from place to place, despite having the same search word. It is not confined to the results you see, but your search results’ order is also decided by the data science algorithm used by Google.

4. Advertisement targeting:

Marketers use data science algorithms to interpret and understand customer behavior. They predict the target customer behavior to design the advertisement according to their goals and interests. Data science is used to analyze the available customer behavior data to understand customer behavior better. Google and other platforms such as Instagram and Spotify target the advertisements to their customers depending on customer behavior. Data science algorithms are used to decide which advertisements are best for customers.

5. Personalized suggestions:

All the personal suggestions provided by Instagram and Spotify use data science algorithms that study your behavior to predict your likes and dislikes to make the recommendations accordingly. The platforms record all the user data to the finest details, such as the amount of time the user has viewed a post or the number of times the user has listened to a playlist. The algorithm uses this data to give an accurate prediction of your choices, making the suggestions useful. Data science is used to figure out your mood during the time of a particular day, thereby suggesting songs suited to your mood.

6. Image and speech recognition:

Most image and speech recognition platforms such as Cortana, Siri, and Google use data science algorithms to better recognize your voice and images. The tag suggestions you get when you upload a picture with your friend on Facebook or Instagram are an example of an image recognition algorithm. The data science helps the apps to recognize you better. The machine learning algorithms used by the platforms make it easy to access your treasured devices and applications.

7. Gaming and augmented reality:

Gaming has not been on the list of data science users until recently. The games, such as Dota2, use players’ data to update and improve the game. The player’s feedback is not sufficient to make changes that keep the game balanced in extremely complicated games such as Dota 2. Augmented reality uses data science to understand the player’s movement accurately to improve the gaming experience. Pokémon Go is an example of a game that uses both augmented reality and data science. Augmented reality is a budding field, thereby, data science needs to improve.

8. Education:

Data science has proved to be very useful in providing good education to students during this online education era. Many education platforms use data science to measure the instruction levels compared to the student learning rate to make the teaching more student-oriented and friendly. The platforms use data science to observe and understand individual student learning rates and suggest courses that can help them grow and improve.

9. Transportation and self-driving cars:

Data science is used in the automotive and transportation industry to predict the possible failures in new designs. The machine algorithms will be fed the previous production line-up data to improve the vehicle’s performance and reliability. The vehicle dynamics can be improved a lot by the prediction and understanding provided by data science. Self-driving cars use data science to improve their algorithm’s efficiency through the prediction and understanding of previous experiences. Reinforced learning improves the stability of the systems used in automobiles.

10. Airline route planning:

Airlines use data science to predict the weather conditions, thereby predicting the delays in the flight timings. They use data science to benefit their regular customers by analyzing their behavior and predicting their future travels based on their past data. They can decide the route they will take from the source to the destination based on the frequency, the risk involved in taking that route, etc.

Closing thoughts:

Data science has applications in almost every field in today’s world, making it the most favorite career choice for today’s youngsters. Learning data science in the current scenario seems logical because the demand for data science is very high at the moment. Join the Data Science course offered by Excel to start your career as a data scientist to earn a maximum income today!

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Tips On Securing Your Business Website From Hackers

Maricar Morga



Tips On Securing Your Business Website From Hackers

Establishing your web identity is a vital part of your marketing campaign. On the other hand, as you concentrate on enhancing your online presence and ranking in search engines, you still need to be alert in responding to cyberattacks by securing your website from hackers

Web protection is a dynamic and ever-changing challenge. Every so often, the scenery for cybercrime shift. New and more efficient security features and functions for websites are evolving daily. However, hackers and cybercriminals are also continuously reinventing themselves to navigate these security features and target insecure pages.

How Can Hackers Hack Your Business Website? 

You must understand your website’s potential to become vulnerable to attacks. Online protection, otherwise known as cybersecurity, can be considered a means of defending the website from cyber threats and assaults. Although complicated, it includes setting up features and taking steps to protect your data and visitors to your site from cybercriminals.

Here are several different ways that hacking presents itself:

  • Malicious software: This is a significant threat that hackers use to steal data and facilitate unwanted access to the site.
  • Blacklisting: If a search engine detects malware on your site, it could be omitted from the search results that eventually reduce your web exposure.
  • Gibberish Hack: You’ll see lots of auto-created pages loaded with keywords and gibberish to get them to rate on Google for key phrases. When clicked on, they’re going to redirect to a dubious link.
  • Ransomware: The hacker would threaten to reveal your data and deny access to your site until a separate ransom fee is paid.
  • Malicious code/viruses: If a malicious code or virus is introduced into your site, your site may crash, or you may not be able to access it. You will find that all of your hardware is impaired as well.
  • DDoS attacks: These attacks slow down or crush your server, rendering it unavailable to visitors of your site.
  • Vulnerable exploits: Involves attacking and removing data from your business website through its weak points and loopholes. 

Ways To Protect Your Business Website

Hackers are not only attacking large and established businesses. They also aim at small enterprises and personal websites. That reason should be enough to ensure that you add and do all the appropriate security features and precautions if you have a website. Here are a few things you can do to reduce the exposure of your site to hackers.

1. Update Your Website System

Hackers still learn how to navigate current security features. That is why upgrades are required as they come with new technology and components for better security features. It is also a must that your site is running on the currently available software with the latest and most robust security features. 

When searching for new hack sites, cybercriminals often attack insecure websites with obsolete components such as themes and plugins, among other elements. They are easy to browse, circumvent, and obtain access to the restricted areas of your website. 

Keep your applications up to date by updating and evaluating all the software elements on your website. Do a simple search report to determine what needs to be updated. If there are components with an auto-update option, and the program documentation makes automatic updates without disrupting the web functionality, toggle the feature. 

2. Have an SSL Certificate

Another thing that you must not forego is that you must have an SSL certificate on your website. You also need to encrypt data, such as login details, that moves between your server and your visitors. There are various SSL levels you can get; eCommerce sites that handle payment data, for example, can use a more sophisticated version. 

SSL encrypts the information that travels through your website and your guests. Google now alerts users when they reach a site without an SSL and also “discriminates” individual pages in their search results. It is essential to provide SSL protection if you accept payments via your website or request login information. Without this, any data is unprotected and open to hackers.

3. Have A Powerful Password

Your password is like a lock in your room. The heavier the bolt, the more challenging it is for someone to break in. Go all out on your passwords to make them as robust as possible. The aim is to make your passwords as unique as possible so that no one will guess them. 

That means keeping away from obvious choices such as using the name or common passwords such as “qwerty,” “Password,” or “123456.” A strong password involves a mixture of letters and symbols. The longer the password, the better. The common fear people have when constructing complicated passwords is that they won’t memorize them. However, you can use password managers to help you remember your passwords and refrain from being logged out of your accounts and profiles. 

4. Have A Password Encryption

That is especially relevant for websites that enable consumers to include their personal information and login with a password. To protect them, encrypt their records, including their password. The security of your website is also related to the security requirements of your web host. They can also retain secure passwords on their servers to preserve any of your hosting pages’ integrity.

5. Find A Secure Host

It is also essential that your hosting company for your business website is reputable in their field. They should offer a security feature that will keep your website safe from any possible attack. Your chosen web host provider should also provide a backup feature where it can store your data. If an attack happens, it should be able to retrieve your backup data any time of the day. Your host should have come with technical support 24/7. 

6. Secure Your Comment Section

While it is excellent to have received comments from your website visitors, sometimes you have to be cautious as not every commenter mean well for your site. You may receive comments from fake accounts, bots, trolls, and spammy links that may contain malware. When one of your website visitors accidentally clicks on it, it can pose a danger to your website and your visitors as well. 

To refrain this from happening, you can set to accept comments manually. That will help you identify malicious statements and delete them right away. You can opt to use a plugin or anti-spam software that will help you eradicate unsafe comments. 

7. Place Security Plugins

Experts advise that you can also expand your website’s protection by placing security to protect it. It will provide another layer of protection and prevent hackers from infiltrating your business website. Moreover, having security plugins will stop cybercriminals from spying on your site’s login details that will allow them to enter your website. It will also help secure loops that make your website susceptible to attacks and be on the lookout for malware and viruses. 

Final Thoughts

Having a business website is one of the most critical moves for any company in this digital era. However, securing your website is a must not compromise your hard work. There is much personal information found on your site. If you do not take security seriously, it can pose a massive threat to your business, existing clients, and potential customers.

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Why is it important to invest in Cybersecurity for SMB customers ?

Chris Holroyd



Cybersecurity is important for Small and Medium Businesses with breaches happening regularly across businesses of all sizes & SMB customers are becoming soft targets for cybercriminals. They often find themselves in a situation where they do not have enough budgets to invest in advanced security solutions in spite of a recent spike in attacks on SMB customers. For most of the SMB customers, the IT Security starts and ends with an Antivirus and a Firewall.

Cybersecurity for SMB

Main attacks targeting SMB include Ransomware, Business Email Compromise, RDP attacks, credentials takeover, and hacking of Servers and PABX. Following a basic checklist can make sure that SMB customers stay secure without getting caught by surprise. Given below are the main areas of cybersecurity for SMB customers that need focus :

Backup your Data Regularly

Malware attacks or accidental deletion by employees can put companies in awkward situations where important data goes missing. By regularly backing up you’ll ensure your business will be able to function not only in the event of a cyber attack but possibly through the impact of a fire, physical damage, or theft. It is also important to make sure that one copy of your organization’s data is available offline. The same shouldn’t be accessible from within the network as attacks like Ransomware encrypts data stored on connected devices like NAS drives. Having a good offline backup is the most important aspect of having a good Cybersecurity for SMB. Companies should follow a 3-2-1 rule when configuring backups, which advocates having 3 different copies of data on 2 different media with one of them being off-site.

Strong Boundary Defense

Firewalls are the entry point for an outsider to any corporate network. The Firewall needs to be hardened or configured with best practices to make sure that intruders are not allowed into the network. Deploying a Firewall with a proxy is a best practice that SMB customers should follow. It is also important to change the default password on your firewall when you install the same.

Protection from Ransomware

Good antivirus software can help organizations to stay secure from new and emerging threats. However, Ransomware infections can be fatal to business as it encrypts the data stored on Servers and NAS devices and asks for a huge amount of money to be paid as ransom. This is why it is important to deploy Anti-Ransomware products like NeuShield that can also help organizations recover data from Ransomware attacks.

Email Phishing & Spoofing Protection

Email is the main entry point for the majority of malware that comes into your network. Emails contain links and attachments that could be malicious and the same needs to be removed before end-users receive the mails. Most SMB customers are victims of email impersonation & phishing attacks. Domains without proper SPF, DKIM & DMARC records make it easier for phishers and spammers to spoof emails. This happens because receivers cannot reliably separate and block fraudulent emails that mimic your domain. You need to implement Sender policy framework(SPF), Domain keys identified mail(DKIM) & Domain-based message authentication reporting and conformance(DMARC) to stop spoofers from using your domain. Solutions like Vircom modusCloud help SMB customers with Email Security.

Stay Patched

Hackers and malware look for vulnerabilities in your operating systems and applications to compromise the network. Patches are necessary to keep machines up-to-date, stable, and safe from malware and other threats. Applying these security patches at the right time will greatly reduce security breaches of various kinds. Patch management also helps with increased productivity. Often patches come with performance improvements for the products they apply to or fix crashes. It is important to patch operating systems and commonly used software on a regular basis.

Strong Passwords & Multi-factor Authentication

A strong password provides essential protection from financial fraud and identity theft. One of the most common ways that hackers get into systems is by guessing passwords. Simple and commonly used passwords enable intruders to easily gain access and control of a computing device. Brute-force attacks are quite effective against companies with obvious usernames and simple passwords. Hackers run automated programs that try different password combinations for a potential password. Organizations should enforce strong and complex passwords and the same should be changed every 120 days. Using a password manager helps organizations with managing passwords by generating and retrieving complex passwords, potentially storing such passwords in an encrypted database. Multifactor authentication makes sure that the right set of users only gets access to applications and systems that make it a key focus area when it comes to cybersecurity for SMB customers.

Insider Threat Management

Employees can pose a significant cybersecurity risk to the organization. This includes employees with a grudge, malicious actions such as leaving with a database or human error. Sensitive Data should be protected so that employees do not misuse the same. An integrated Data Leakage Prevention solution that uses behavior analytics and employee monitoring can prevent data leakage and insider threats. It can give proactive warnings about probable data loss through notifications and alerts to identify and block the same.

Cybersecurity Training for employees

Employees are the weakest links when it comes to cybersecurity for SMB customers. Cybersecurity training helps employees to protect themselves and the company against cyberthreats like phishing attacks. Training empowers employees with up-to-date knowledge on how to recognize and mitigate a cyber-threat. With vigilant employees using strong passwords, flagging suspicious emails, and alerting supervisors about unusual communications or activity, the company itself becomes less vulnerable.

Try Managed Security Services

Recruiting people with proper IT Security knowledge is the biggest challenge faced by SMB customers. This couple with the fact that cybersecurity space is ever-changing makes it much more difficult for companies to survive an attack, whether it’s an intrusion, ransomware, or a simple DDoS attack. Managed Security services are a good solution for cybersecurity for SMB because they let you access a dedicated team that is ready to deal with all the cybersecurity problems that come your way, without having to create or hire an internal department. A service like WatchTower will monitor your network on a 24X7 basis to identify threats in the early stages before it gets out of control.

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What Do You Need To Know To Protect Your Data

Chris Holroyd



Protect Your Data

Information Security Specialist Denis Gamayunov on the basic concepts of this area. Post-Science continues to talk about modern technologies and competencies of the future in the project “ Knowledge Bank ”, prepared jointly with  Sberbank Corporate University .


Cybersphere, cyberspace (an undefined term) is a context of human interaction, established in digital signal flows. To interact with other people and machines in this digital environment, people must express their thoughts in writing codes and graphic images without using gestures, contacts, or physical presence. Thus, cyberspace is best understood as virtual space or medium.

Internet of things

The Internet of things is a term that means a large and ever-increasing set of digital devices operating on networks with global potential. The concept of the Internet of things describes a computer network of physical objects (“things”) equipped with built-in technologies for interacting with each other or with the external environment. In contrast to the conventional Internet, which is also called the Internet of people, the Internet of things is formed exclusively by intelligent sensors and other similar devices that may be susceptible to cyber attacks.


Cybersecurity is a set of tools, strategies, security principles, security guarantees, risk management approaches, training, practical experience, insurance and technologies that can be used to protect the cyber sphere, Organization & user resources include connected computer devices, personnel, infrastructure, applications, services, telecommunication systems, and the entire set of transmit and / or stored information in cyber sphere.


A hacker is skilled programmer who can find quick and elegant ways to fix bugs or make changes to software. Interestingly, in the Russian-speaking environment, the word “hacker” is often used as a synonym for the word “attacker”: a person committing various kinds of illegal actions in the field of computer science. It’s more correct to call cybercriminals the word “blackjacker” (from English blackhat ).

Computer attack

Computer attack – targeted unauthorized influence on information, on the resource of an automated information system or gaining unauthorized access to them using software or hardware and software. As a rule, an attack exploits one or another vulnerability in the attacked information system or a combination of vulnerabilities.


Vulnerability – a flaw in the computer system, the use of which leads to a violation of the integrity of the system and incorrect operation. The vulnerability arises as a result of programming errors, flaws that were allowed when designing the system, weak passwords, malware, and so on.

Hardware bookmark

Hardware tab – a device in an electronic circuit, covertly embedded to other elements that can interfere with the work of a computer system. The result of the hardware bookmark can be either a complete disabling of the system, or a violation of its normal functioning, for example, unauthorized access to information, modification or blocking. A hardware bookmark can be used to covertly collect data from the system and transmit it to an attacker, and the introduction of such a bookmark is possible both in production and throughout the supply chain from the manufacturer to the end user.


Compromise (hacking) is the result of a successful attack on a system vulnerability. In cryptography, this term is used to indicate the fact of access by an unauthorized person to the protected information, as well as suspicion of it. Most often they consider the compromise of a private key, a private algorithm, a digital certificate, accounts (passwords), subscribers, or other secured elements, allowing to verify the identity of the participant in the exchange of information. They often talk about getting a shell (remote access to the system with user or administrator rights) as a result of successful compromise.

Attack detection

Detection of attacks is the process of constant monitoring of an information system in order to detect and block computer attacks on it. The process can be carried out using special software or hardware, cybersecurity specialists, cloud monitoring centers (the so-called SOC – Security Operations Center ), and even government services. For example, in Russia there is GosSOPKA – a distributed system for detecting and preventing computer attacks, which is supervised by the FSB.

Vulnerability Detection

Vulnerability Detection – the process of analyzing an information system in order to detect possible problems in the security system, assess and eliminate vulnerabilities. Vulnerability detection can include research and reverse engineering of the software and hardware components of the system, analysis of program code using special methods to detect previously unknown flaws – this is done by hackers and security researchers, and if successful, they talk about detecting a “zero day vulnerability” (0 day) . Vulnerability detection may also involve analyzing the system for the presence of known flaws, and then we can talk about “penetration testing” or security analysis using the “black box”, “gray box,” “transparent box” methods. In this case, special safety scanners can be used in combination with manual analysis.

Protected software

Protected software (safe software) – it is customary to talk about software development methodologies that developers can or should use to minimize the likelihood of vulnerabilities in their programs and, as a result, reduce the possible consequences of attacks on these programs. Many large companies have already moved or are actively transitioning to the secure software development cycle, in which hackers play one of the key roles.

Encryption key

An encryption key is secret information (a set of numbers and letters) that is used by the algorithm to encrypt and decrypt information. There are symmetric ciphers (in this case, one key is used for encryption and decryption) and asymmetric, in which each participant has their own key pair: public and private. The public (public key) is accessible to everyone and is often used to encrypt data when the browser accesses the server using the SSL / TLS protocol. Private (secret key) is known only to the owner of the site. Used to decrypt data sent by the browser. In practice, public and private key encryption is used to negotiate a symmetric cipher key between the browser and the server at the very beginning of HTTPS interaction

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